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Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis

Women are much more likely to develop Osteoporosis than are men.

Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and breakable. It causes bones so breakable that a fall or even mild stresses such as bending over or coughing can cause a fracture. Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in the hip, wrist or spine.

Your bones are usually dense and strong enough to support your weight and absorb most kinds of impacts. As you age, your bones naturally lose some of their density and their ability to regrow (remodel) themselves. If you have osteoporosis your bones are much more fragile than they should be, and are much weaker.

Osteoporosis affects men and women of all races. Older women who are past menopause, are more likely to have Osteoporosis. Medications, healthy diet and weight-bearing exercise can help prevent bone loss or strengthen already weak bones.

Symptoms of Osteoporosis

Symptoms of Osteoporosis include:

  • Back pain, caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra
  • Loss of height over time
  • A stooped posture
  • A bone that breaks much more easily than expected

Causes of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis happens as you get older and your bones lose their ability to regrow and reform themselves.

Your bones are living tissue like any other part of your body. It might not seem like it, but they’re constantly replacing their own cells and tissue throughout your life. Up until about age 30, your body naturally builds more bone than you lose. After age 35, bone breakdown happens faster than your body can replace it, which causes a gradual loss of bone mass.

If you have osteoporosis, you lose bone mass at a greater rate. People in postmenopause lose bone mass even faster.

Risk Factors

A number of factors can increase the likelihood that you’ll develop osteoporosis — including your age, race, lifestyle choices, and medical conditions and treatments.

Unchangeable Risks

Some risk factors for osteoporosis are out of your control, including:

  • Your sex. Women are much more likely to develop osteoporosis than are men.
  • Age. The older you get, the greater your risk of osteoporosis.
  • Race. You’re at greatest risk of osteoporosis if you’re white or of Asian descent.
  • Family history. Having a parent or sibling with osteoporosis puts you at greater risk, especially if your mother or father fractured a hip.
  • Body frame size. Men and women who have small body frames tend to have a higher risk because they might have less bone mass to draw from as they age.

Hormone Levels

Osteoporosis is more common in people who have too much or too little of certain hormones in their bodies. Examples include:

  • Sex hormones. Lowered sex hormone levels tend to weaken bone. The fall in estrogen levels in women at menopause is one of the strongest risk factors for developing osteoporosis. Treatments for prostate cancer that reduce testosterone levels in men and treatments for breast cancer that reduce estrogen levels in women are likely to accelerate bone loss.
  • Thyroid problems. Too much thyroid hormone can cause bone loss. This can occur if your thyroid is overactive or if you take too much thyroid hormone medication to treat an underactive thyroid.
  • Other glands. Osteoporosis has also been associated with overactive parathyroid and adrenal glands.

Dietary Factors

Osteoporosis is more likely to occur in people who have:

  • Low calcium intake. A lifelong lack of calcium plays a role in the development of osteoporosis. Low calcium intake contributes to diminished bone density, early bone loss and an increased risk of fractures.
  • Eating disorders. Severely restricting food intake and being underweight weakens bone in both men and women.
  • Gastrointestinal surgery. Surgery to reduce the size of your stomach or to remove part of the intestine limits the amount of surface area available to absorb nutrients, including calcium. These surgeries include those to help you lose weight and for other gastrointestinal disorders.

Steroids and Other Medications

Long-term use of oral or injected corticosteroid medications, such as prednisone and cortisone, interferes with the bone-rebuilding process. Osteoporosis has also been associated with medications used to combat or prevent:

  • Seizures
  • Gastric reflux
  • Cancer
  • Transplant rejection

Medical Conditions

The risk of Osteoporosis is higher in people who have certain medical problems, including:

  • Celiac disease
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Kidney or liver disease
  • Cancer
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Rheumatoid arthritis

Lifestyle Choices

Some bad habits can increase your risk of Osteoporosis. Examples include:

  • Sedentary lifestyle. People who spend a lot of time sitting have a higher risk of osteoporosis than do those who are more active. Any weight-bearing exercise and activities that promote balance and good posture are beneficial for your bones, but walking, running, jumping, dancing and weightlifting seem particularly helpful.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption. Regular consumption of more than two alcoholic drinks a day increases the risk of osteoporosis.
  • Tobacco use. The exact role tobacco plays in osteoporosis isn’t clear, but it has been shown that tobacco use contributes to weak bones.

Prevention required for Osteoporosis

Good nutrition and regular exercise are essential for keeping your bones healthy throughout your life.

Calcium

Men and women between the ages of 18 and 50 need 1,000 milligrams of calcium a day. This daily amount increases to 1,200 milligrams when women turn 50 and men turn 70.

Good sources of calcium include:

  • Low-fat dairy products
  • Dark green leafy vegetables
  • Canned salmon or sardines with bones
  • Soy products, such as tofu
  • Calcium-fortified cereals and orange juice

Vitamin D

Vitamin D improves the body’s ability to absorb calcium and improves bone health in other ways. People can get some of their vitamin D from Sunlight, but this might not be a good source if you live in a high latitude, if you’re housebound, or if you regularly use sunscreen or avoid the sun because of the risk of skin cancer.

Dietary sources of vitamin D include:

  • Ccod Liver Oil
  • Trout
  • Salmon
  • Many types of milk and cereal have been fortified with vitamin D.

Most people need at least 600 international units (IU) of vitamin D a day. That recommendation increases to 800 IU a day after age 70.

People without other sources of vitamin D and especially with limited sun exposure might need a supplement. Most multivitamin products contain between 600 and 800 IU of vitamin D. Up to 4,000 IU of vitamin D a day is safe for most people.

Exercise

Exercise can help you build strong bones and slow bone loss. Exercise will benefit your bones no matter when you start, but you’ll gain the most benefits if you start exercising regularly when you’re young and continue to exercise throughout your life.

Combine strength training exercises with weight-bearing and balance exercises. Strength training helps strengthen muscles and bones in your arms and upper spine. Weight-bearing exercises — such as walking, jogging, running, stair climbing, skipping rope, skiing and impact-producing sports — affect mainly the bones in your legs, hips and lower spine. Balance exercises such as tai chi can reduce your risk of falling especially as you get older.

Diagnosis

Your bone density can be measured by a machine that uses low levels of X-rays to determine the proportion of mineral in your bones. In most cases, only certain bones are checked — usually in the hip and spine.

Treatment of Osteoporosis

Shreya Hospital at Ghaziabad is the best treatment center for Osteoporosis. Orthopedic Specialists will suggest a combination of treatments that slow down your bone loss and strengthen your existing bone tissue. The most important part of treating osteoporosis is preventing bone fractures.

The most common Osteoporosis treatments include:

  • Exercise: Regular exercise can strengthen your bones (and all the tissue connected to them, like your muscles, tendons and ligaments). Our Physical Therapist might suggest weight-bearing exercise to strengthen your muscles and train your balance. Exercises that make your body work against gravity like walking, yoga, Pilates and tai chi can improve your strength and balance without putting too much stress on your bones.
  • Vitamin and Mineral Supplements: Doctor might prescribe Calcium or Vitamin-D Supplements. And he will guide you which type of supplements you need, how often you should take them and how much dosage you’ll need.
  • Medications for osteoporosis: Your Doctor will guide you which prescriptions will work best for you and your body. Some of the most common medications providers use to treat osteoporosis include hormone therapies like replacement estrogen or testosterone and bisphosphonates. People with severe osteoporosis or a high risk of fractures might need medications, including parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogs, denosumab and romosozumab. These medications are usually given as injections.